Protecting Temporary Labour Migrants: An Emerging Role for Global Cities

Tungohan, E. (2012)
In H. Bauder (Ed.), Immigration and Settlement: Challenges, Experiences, and Opportunities in Global and Local Contexts (pp. 75-93), Canadian Scholars Press

Immigration and Settlement: Challenges, Experiences, and Opportunities draws on a selection of papers that were presented at the international Migration and the Global City conference at Ryerson University, Toronto, in October of 2010. Through the use of international and Canadian perspectives, this book examines the contemporary challenges, experiences, and opportunities of immigration and settlement in global, Canadian, and Torontonian contexts. In seventeen comprehensive chapters, this text approaches immigration and settlement from various thematic angles, including: rights, state, and citizenship; immigrants as labour; communities and identities; housing and residential contexts; and emerging opportunities. Immigration and Settlement will be of interest to academics, researchers and students, policy-makers, NGOs and settlement practitioners, and activists and community organizers.

Debunking Notions of Migrant ‘Victimhood’: A Critical Assessment of Temporary Labour Migration Programs and Filipina Migrant Activism in Canada

Tungohan, E. (2012)
In R. Coloma, B. McElhinny, E. Tungohan and L. Davidson (Eds.), Disturbing Invisibility: Filipinos in Canada (pp. 161-180), University of Toronto Press

Temporary labour migration is increasing globally. Statistics from the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) indicate that 2.5 million legal temporary labour migrants resided in developed countries in 2006, three times the number of permanent migrants residing in these states (Abella 2006). The same numbers also show that temporary labour migrants’ entry into developed countries has increased by 4 to 5 per cent annually since 2000.

Disturbing Invisibility: Filipinos in Canada

Coloma, R. S., McElhinny, B., Tungohan, E., Catungal, J. P. C. and Davidson, L. M. (2012)
University of Toronto Press

The Philippines became Canada’s largest source of short- and long-term migrants in 2010, surpassing China and India, both of which are more than ten times larger. The fourth-largest racialized minority group in the country, the Filipino community is frequently understood by such figures as the victimized nanny, the selfless nurse, and the gangster youth. On one hand, these narratives concentrate attention, in narrow and stereotypical ways, on critical issues. On the other, they render other problems facing Filipino communities invisible.

This landmark book, the first wide-ranging edited collection on Filipinos in Canada, explores gender, migration and labour, youth spaces and subjectivities, representation and community resistance to certain representations. Looking at these from the vantage points of anthropology, cultural studies, education, geography, history, information science, literature, political science, sociology, and women and gender studies, Filipinos in Canada provides a strong foundation for future work in this area.

More information at U of T Press.

Review of the book Emigration: Economic Implications by T. Ramachandra Shastri

Tungohan, E. (2009)

Synopsis International migration affects the labour markets of both the host and the home countries. Generally, the entrepreneurial capabilities and skill levels of the migrants are high and hence, their movement may be an advantage to the host country and a loss to the home country. But the remittances of the migrants aggregate to a large volume. It has significant impact on the economy and external payment positions of several home countries. Hence, the home countries stand benefited by such remittances. However, brain drain can have dire consequences for sustainable development in developing countries. A significant number of migrant workers also face undue hardships and abuse in the form of low wages, poor working conditions, virtual absence of social protection, discrimination and xenophobia as well as social exclusion. The ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration has compiled a set of principles, guidelines and best practices to guide countries in the formulation and implementation of labour migration policies. States have the sovereign right to determine their own migration policies. Labour laws framed by countries governing the movement of people take into account these divergent economic and social issues. The impact of migration and the experiences can naturally vary from country to country. The book gives a complete overview of the international migration and its impact on the labour market and entrepreneurship and also a study of these issues in several countries.

Gender, Migration, and Co-Development: Making the Case for Gender-Responsive Co- Development

Tungohan, E. (2008)
United Nations INSTRAW Working Paper: Gender, Remittances, and Migration, UN-INSTRAW, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

Migration is an inevitable part of today’s global landscape, with all regions of the world affected by escalating international migration flows. According to the 2005 United Nations World Migrant Stock Population database, there were 191 million documented migrants globally in 2005.  This report has a two-pronged argument. First, it recognizes the potential benefits co- development can bring as a migration and development tool. It thus becomes imperative to conduct a comprehensive critical overview of co-development research and practices in order to ascertain the ways in which co-development has been historically deployed. Second, this report advances an explicitly gender-sensitive and gender-responsive co-development agenda; co-development is laudable in its attempts to amalgamate migration with development practices, but can only be a viable and effective policy option if it institutes gender mainstreaming in all of its operations.


Global Migration and Development: Is Co-Development the Answer?

Tungohan, E. (2008)
Global Tensions, Global Possibilities: Everyday Forces of Conformity and Contestation, Institute of Globalization and the Human Condition, Hamilton, ON

International labour migration from developing to developed countries is considered a widespread phenomenon. As such, attempts at developing coherent co-development policies can be lauded as progressive because they make the effort to utilize migration to the benefit of both sending and receiving states, theoretically placing them, and all parties involved, in a mutually and equally beneficial relationship. Although co-development has numerous definitions and is applied in varying contexts, its main thrust is a “win-win” philosophy where labour migrants, their families in their communities of origin, sending countries, and receiving countries are able to accrue concrete economic and human development benefits (Chou 2005). I, therefore, recognize the potential benefits of co-development policies as migration and development tools. Nevertheless, in order to ascertain the ways in which co-development has been historically deployed, I present a comprehensive critical overview of co-development research and practices.

Special Procedures of the United Nations Commission of Human Rights

Tungohan, E. (2007)
Transparency International Report on Follow-Up Process on United Nations Convention on Corruption, Transparency International, Geneva

The Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council are independent human rights experts with mandates to report and advise on human rights from a thematic or country-specific perspective. The system of Special Procedures is a central element of the United Nations human rights machinery and covers all human rights: civil, cultural, economic, political, and social. In the context of the 2011 review of its work and functioning, the Human Rights Council reaffirmed the obligation of States to cooperate with the Special Procedures,  and the integrity and independence of Special Procedures. It also reaffirmed the principles of cooperation, transparency and accountability and the role of the system of Special Procedures in enhancing the capacity of the Human Rights Council to address human rights situations. Member States confirmed their strong opposition to reprisals against persons cooperating with the United Nations and its human rights mechanism and representatives.

Review of the book Feminist Social and Political Theory by Janice McLaughlin

Tungohan, E. (2004)
Women’s Studies Network

This text introduces students to both feminism and other social and political theories via an examination of the inter-relationship between different feminist positions and key contemporary debates. The book takes each debate in turn, outlining the main themes and feminist responses.